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Nicotine salts - What you need to know

Posted by E-Liquids Superstore on

WITHIN THE TOBACCO PLANT

NICOTINE OCCURS LARGELY IN 2 FORMS:

DIPROTONATED1

MONOROTONATED1

DIPROTONATED1

MONOROTONATED1

THEY ARE IONIC FORMS OF NICOTINE AKA NICOTINE SALTS2

source: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK53014/

IN MOST E-LIQUIDS AND CIGARETTE SMOKE

NICOTINE OCCURS MAINLY IN 1 FORM:

UNROTONATED1

UNROTONATED1

THIS IS NICOTINE IN ITS FREEBASE FORM3

1

IN CHEMISTRY, PROTONATION IS THE ADDITION OF A PROTON (H+) TO AN ATOM, MOLECULE OR ION.

DEPROTONATION IS THE REMOVAL OF A PROTON (H+).

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protonation

2

IN CHEMISTRY, A SALT IS THE RESULT OF A REACTION BETWEEN AN ACID AND A BASE (ALSO NAMED ALKALI) CALLED NEUTRALISATION.

https://www.britannica.com/science/salt- acid-base-reactions

3

THIS MEANS THE NICOTINE MOLECULE IS NOW FREE FROM THE PROTONS IT GAINED FROM THE REACTION WITH ACIDS. IT CAN BE DONE BY ADDING A BASIC FLUID TO THE SOLUTION LIKE AMMONIA.

3 NICOTINE FORMS, VERY DIFFERENT pH

THE HIGHER THE pH, THE BETTER ABSORPTION BUT IT ALSO BECOMES HARSHER4

source: https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/chemistry/nicotine

4

IN CIGARETTES, HARSHNESS IS BALANCED WITH USE OF ANESTHESIANT CHEMICALS THESE ARE NOT ALLOWED FOR
E-LIQUID MANUFACTURE. TO REDUCE HARSHNESS, E-LIQUIDS NEEDS LESS NICOTINE

NIC-SALTS E-LIQUIDS

UNROTONATED1

ORGANIC ACID

  • BENZOIC ACID
  • CITRIC ACID
  • SACCHARIC ACID
    ...

UNROTONATED1

ORGANIC ACID

  • BENZOIC ACID
  • CITRIC ACID
  • SACCHARIC ACID
    ...

Depending on the acid used in the ionisation of nicotine, the pH levels vary. With the right formula, a smooth hit is possible with higher nicotine levels whilst maintaining quick absorption.

SALT NICOTINE

LOWER POWERED DEVICES

SMOOTH AT HIGH LEVELS
EFFICIENT TO QUIT SMOKING
LONGER SHELF LIFE

MTL VAPING ONLY
LESS OPTIONS ON THE MARKET
MORE EXPENSIVE BY VOLUME

FREEBASE NICOTINE

HIGHER POWERED DEVICES

LESS EXPENSIVE BY VOLUME
SUITABLE FOR ALL VAPING STYLES
MORE FLAVOURS AVAILABLE

FASTER OXIDATION
TO BE AVOIDED AT HIGH LEVELS
SLOWER ABSORPTION

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